Controlled vocabulary for /type_material qualifer

Type material is a taxonomic term that ties formal names to specimens that can be used for identification and description of a new taxonomic entity.

Reference: Nucleic Acids Res. 2015 Jan;43(Database issue):D1086-98. doi: 10.1093/nar/gku1127.

INSDC will automatically populate this qualifier from the NCBI taxonomy database to flag sequences of form type in the INSDC databases (ENA/GenBank/DDBJ).

The controlled vocabulary used for various types can be found in the below table.


Type NameSynonymNomenclatures*Comment
type material BZbasic type material – this is default type (except for Archaea and Bacteria)
type strain Pdeposited in at least two different culture collections – default type for Archaea and Bacteria
reference material BZnon-type material designated for reference purposes (except for Archaea and Bacteria)
reference strain Pnon-type material designated for reference purposes (for Archaea and Bacteria)
neotype strain Preplacement culture for a type that has been lost
holotype BZsingle name-bearing type specimen
isotype Bduplicate specimen of the holotype
paratype BZother specimens designated in the original type series
neotype BZsingle name-bearing specimen designated when holotype is lost
epitype Bother specimen designated in subsequent type series
syntype BZone of a name-bearing series of type specimens
isosyntype Bduplicate specimen of a syntype
lectotype BZsyntype subsequently designated as the single name-bearing type
paralectotype Zsyntype not subsequently designated as lectotypes
hapantotype Zprotist assemblage collectively designated as holotype
allotype Zdesignated type specimen of opposite sex to the holotype
isoparatype Bduplicate specimen of a paratype
isoneotype Bduplicate specimen of a neotype
isolectotype Bduplicate specimen of a lectotype
isoepitype Bduplicate specimen of an epitype
culture from reference BZliving eukaryotic culture derived from reference material
culture from type materialex-typeBZliving eukaryotic culture derived from type material
culture from paratypeex-paratypeBZliving eukaryotic culture derived from paratype
culture from neotypeex-neotypeBZliving eukaryotic culture derived from neotype
culture from lectotypeex-lectotypeBZliving eukaryotic culture derived from lectotype
culture from hapantotype Zliving eukaryotic culture derived from hapantotype
culture from isosyntypeex-isosyntypeBliving eukaryotic culture derived from isosyntype
culture from isotypeex-isotypeBliving eukaryotic culture derived from isotype
culture from isoparatypeex-isoparatypeBliving eukaryotic culture derived from isoparatype
culture from isoneotypeex-isoneotypeBliving eukaryotic culture derived from isoneotype
culture from isolectotypeex-isolectotypeBliving eukaryotic culture derived from isolectotype
culture from holotypeex-holotypeBZliving eukaryotic culture derived from holotype
culture from epitypeex-epitypeBliving eukaryotic culture derived from epitype
culture from syntypeex-syntypeBZliving eukaryotic culture derived from syntype
culture from isoepitypeex-isoepitypeBliving eukaryotic culture derived from isoepitype
pathotype strain Pstrain designated as the type for the associated pathovar


*NOTE: Nomenclature letter coding is explained in the following table:                      

B               International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants  

P               International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes          

V               International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses               

Z               The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature