Controlled vocabulary for ncRNA classes

antisense_RNA
RNA molecule that is transcribed from the coding, rather than the template, strand of DNA and that is therefore complementary to mRNA.

autocatalytically_spliced_intron
self-splicing intron.

ribozyme
ribonucleic acid enzyme, RNA molcule that can catalyse specific biochemical reactions.

hammerhead_ribozyme
small catalytic RNA motif that catalyzes a self-cleavage reaction. Its name comes from its secondary structure which resembles a carpenter's hammer. The hammerhead ribozyme is involved in the replication of some viroid and satellite RNAs.

lncRNA
long non-coding RNA; such molecules are generally defined as having a length greater than 200bp and do not fit into any other ncRNA class.

RNase_P_RNA
RNA component of Ribonuclease P (RNase P), a ubiquitous endoribonuclease.

RNase_MRP_RNA
RNA molecule essential for the catalytic activity of RNase MRP, an enzymatically active ribonucleoprotein with two distinct roles in eukaryotes. In mitochondria it plays a direct role in the initiation of mitochondrial DNA replication, while in the nucleus it is involved in precursor rRNA processing.

telomerase_RNA
RNA component of telomerase, a reverse transcriptase that synthesises telomeric DNA.

guide_RNA
short 3'-uridylated RNA that can form a duplex with a stretch of mature edited mRNA.

rasiRNA
small interfering RNA of length between 17 and 28 nucleotides, derived from the transcript of a repetitive element.

scRNA
small cytoplasmic RNA; any one of several small cytoplasmic RNA molecules present in the cytoplasm and (sometimes) nucleus of a eukaryote.

siRNA
small RNA molecule that is the product of a longer exogenous or endogenous double stranded RNA, which is either a bimolecular duplex or very long hairpin, processed (via the Dicer pathway) such that numerous siRNAs accumulate from both strands of the double stranded RNA. sRNAs trigger the cleavage of their target molecules.

miRNA
small, ~22-nt, RNA molecule, termed microRNA, produced from precursor molecules that can form local hairpin structures, which ordinarily are processed (via the Dicer pathway) such that a single miRNA molecule accumulates from one arm of a hairpin precursor molecule. MicroRNAs may trigger the cleavage of their target molecules or act as translational repressors.

piRNA
small RNA molecule, termed Piwi-interacting RNA, expressed in testes and forming RNA-protein complex with Piwi protein; purification of these complexes has revealed that Piwi-interacting RNA oligonucleotides are approximately 24-32 nucleotides long

snoRNA
small [nucleolar] RNA molecules involved in modification and processing of ribosomal RNA or transfer RNA; found in archaea and in eukaryotic species where they are localized in the nucleolus.

snRNA
small nuclear RNA molecules involved in pre-mRNA splicing and processing.

SRP_RNA
signal recognition particle, a universally conserved ribonucleoprotein involved in the co-translational targeting of proteins to membranes.

vault_RNA
RNA component of the vault ribonuceoprotein, a complex which consists of a major vault protein (MVP), two minor vault proteins (VPARP and TEP1), and several small RNA molecules and has been suggested to be involved in drug resistance.

Y_RNA
component of the Ro ribonucleoprotein particle (Ro RNP), in association with Ro60 and La proteins.

other
ncRNA_class not included in any other term.

 

ncRNA classes not yet in the INSDC ncRNA class controlled vocabulary can be annotated by entering '/ncRNA_class="other" with /note="[brief explanation of novel ncRNA_class]".